Starch is made up of two types, amylose and amylopectin.
The ratio of amylose to amylopectin is 20 to 25% for amylose and 75 to 80% for amylopectin in ordinary starch.
|Cereal starch||wheat starch, rice starch, corn starch|
|Potato starch||potato starch, sweet potato starch, tapioca starch, Others (lotus root, kwai, etc.)|
|Bean starch||mung bean starch|
|Wild grass starch||kudzu starch, erythronium starch, bracken starch|
Starch particles are present at the same time as water and become pasty when heated. When this is added to Kamaboko, the white starch becomes transparent at the same time as the mixed surimi is heated. This change is called gelatinization.
The swollen starch particles become insoluble again and settle as the temperature is lowered. Aging is a change in which deterioration such as water separation and roughness of the body gradually occurs while Kamaboko is stored in a low temperature state for a long period of time.
It is the largest particle and the easiest to gelatinize compared to many types.
Immediately after heating, it has a slightly elastic texture, and after refrigerating for 2 to 3 days, it has a moderate texture, but after that, it ages. Kamaboko is the starch that has been used for a long time and is suitable for directly heated products.
It has the advantages of being inferior to potato starch in gelatinization but stronger than corn starch and aging more slowly.
Immediately after heating, the elasticity is low and the hardness tends to be slightly inferior. It is a starch suitable for foods with a sitting process.
Amylose, protein and oil are present in the components. Therefore, the gelatinization temperature is high because the particles are less likely to be destroyed by heating.
When added to a paste product, the texture immediately after heating is moderately elastic. Two to three days after refrigeration, the texture becomes hard but not sticky without wateriness. Subsequent changes over time are relatively small starch.
The gelatinization temperature is slightly lower than that of wheat starch.
When added to a paste product and heated, it has a mochi-like texture, and is a starch with almost no elastic reinforcing effect and aging.
By substituting 10 to 20% of the added starch, it is effective in preventing aging and water separation.
It is harder to gelatinize than potato starch, but easier to gelatinize than wheat starch. When added to a surimi product and heated, it has a soft but supple texture.
It is a starch with little change over time and little.
It is a starch that has physical properties such that it is added to a paste product and no starch is added after heating, and it is difficult to increase the elasticity. It is a starch that changes slowly over time and appears little by little.
Modified starch is obtained by chemically, physically, or enzymatically processing the characteristics of ordinary starch according to the purpose.
Various types of modified starch are commercially available, which are classified according to raw materials such as potato starch and corn starch, and further classified according to the purpose of use.
The amount of starch added has an appropriate value that is most suitable for the product with respect to the quality and type of surimi used and the addition ratio.
The best-by date varies depending on the product, but there is an appropriate amount of addition that does not age within each range.
If the product is cooked and eaten, even a slight aging will have little effect on the taste.
Generally, when starch is added to a surimi product, it is possible to add 2 to 3 times the amount of starch added, although it depends on the type of starch.
When starch is added to a paste product, adding an amount that can obtain a preferable texture can be said to be “elastic reinforcement” as an improvement in physical properties.
However, if starch is added to the paste product in an amount that causes deterioration of physical properties, the amount will be increased.
Soybean protein is a protein separated and extracted from soybean.
There are two types when adding to surimi products. First, a powder type that assists in elastic formation by mixing with the protein of minced fish meat. It is a solid type with a second particulate or fibrous texture like a seed.
Powdered types of soy protein also include concentrated soy protein (70-90%) and isolated soy protein (90-95%). Separated soy protein with few impurities is the easiest to use for paste products in terms of flavor.
Various fish paste products have been developed, and the use of fats and oils is increasing. The emulsifying power of soybean protein is used as a method for adding fats and oils to paste products.This is a method in which an emulsion consisting of soybean protein, fat and oil, and water is prepared in advance and then put into salted surimi and kneaded.
Here, attention should be paid to the effect on the color tone and physical properties of the product. Care must be taken when adding to Kamaboko or crab sticks made from high-grade surimi, which is white, transparent and has a supple texture, as it may reduce the quality of the product.
It should be used well because it can be added in large quantities to lower-grade offshore surimi, land-based surimi, and fried foods and chikuwa, and the quality can be improved. The amount of addition is limited to about 40% of the total amount of the emulsion if it is a normal formulation.
When making a paste product using soybean protein, the mashing procedure is to mix soybean protein with water and fats and oils in advance to make a paste. Next, this paste is added at the roughing stage of the ground fish meat, homogenized sufficiently, and salt is added and kneaded.
Among the auxiliary ingredients added to paste products, gluten is important along with starch and soybean protein.
It can be used in terms of its elasticity forming ability, emulsifying property and cost reduction.
The purpose of using active gluten is to improve the physical properties of paste products.
It is a paste product for stew such as Satsuma-age, and it can reduce the degree of tenderness as the stew time increases. Furthermore, it has the effect of maintaining the physical properties of the paste product to be retorted. In addition, it is possible to maintain the elasticity of a paste product by supplementing the decrease in elasticity of fried fish cake and chikuwa to which an emulsion of soybean protein is added.
The precautions for using active gluten are to consider the effect on the viscosity and hardness of the surimi to be mixed during stirring. Furthermore, confirm the difference in texture and flavor when it becomes a product. In general Satsuma-age, the limit is 1.5% addition.
Previously, sodium L-glutamate was called an umami seasoning, but now it is called an umami seasoning including other umami seasonings such as Na inosinate, Na guanylate, and succinic acid.
A compound seasoning is a mixture of umami seasonings in various proportions.
Previously, only natural soup stock and brewed seasonings were called natural seasonings, but recently, natural seasonings are also included, including those processed from natural products.
It is divided into two, the extract type has the extract as the main component, and the decomposition type has the hydrolyzate as the main component.
The blended seasoning is a mixture of various seasonings, flavors, etc. to make it easier to handle when blending a paste product.
There is a special blend seasonings for fish paste. It can be selected and formulated by adjusting the quality of the target product and making it easy to use in the manufacturing process.
The raw material is a plant, and its aroma and irritation are kneaded and used to improve the flavor of the product.
Although it is used for Kamaboko, it is used for products that use livestock meat ingredients but emphasize the flavor, spiciness and flavor, but it is rarely used for so-called traditional Kamaboko.
A flavor that acts in terms of odor to improve the flavor of the paste product.
In terms of raw materials, spices are limited to plants, but spices are produced from various raw materials.
There are three types of fragrances: natural, synthetic and compounded.
When added to Kamaboko, it is mostly flavored with marine products. The main flavors are crab, scallop, shrimp, sea urchin, dried squid, etc. It is indispensable for seasoning by adding it to paste products that emphasize the flavor such as crab-flavored kamaboko and scallop-flavored kamaboko.
Alcoholic beverages are known to round the flavor when added to kamaboko, and are often used for high-grade kamaboko.
Since mirin contains a large amount of sugar, it is also used as a sweet seasoning, and is also used for coloring the surface of kamaboko and fried color and improving the flavor.
Sake is characterized by rounding the flavor of the paste product, having less sweetness, and being less affected by browning during heating. The purpose of using shochu is almost the same, but there is a drawback that if you use it a lot, you will get a habit. The purpose of using wine is similar to that of sake, but due to its flavor, it may not be suitable for ordinary Kamaboko.
It is a seasoning that has a fermentation process during the manufacturing process, and salt is added so that it cannot be drunk.
It is an intermediate type between mirin and sake, and there are various types depending on the purpose.
As a matter of course, it is necessary to check the alcohol salt concentration as well as the flavor.
The taste of oil adds its odor and a unique melting taste.
The purpose of using fats and oils in paste products is mainly to improve the richness of fried foods and to make them finer.
Vegetable oils and fats such as soybean white squeezed oil are the mainstream, and up to about 5% can be added, and the body can be expected to whiten with emulsification.